From Sidney Dekker’s The Field Guide to Understanding ‘Human Error’ on Crew Resource Management (CRM):

Judith Orasanu at NASA has done research to find out what effective CRM is about.

  • shared understanding of the situation, the nature of the problem, the cause of the problem, the meaning of available cues, and what is likely to happen in the future, with or without action by the team members;
  • shared understanding of the goal or desired outcome;
  • shared understanding of the solution strategy: what will be done, by whom, when, and why?


In his work for the Australian Transportation Safety Bureau, for example, Maurice Nevile has operationalized loss of effective CRM as follows:

  • unequal turn-taking where one person does much more of the talking then others;
  • missing responses where responses are expected or standard, with one person regularly withholding talk, opting out, or replying only in a clipped fashion;
  • overlapping talk where another person still has talk of substance to utter but is stepped on by someone else;
  • repair of talk done by others. We often engage in repair of our own talk (to correct or clarify our own speech). But if other people repair our talk, this can point to problems in the interaction or hierarchy between them.